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Ethical finance offers the opportunity to learn how finance can serve the economy without losing sight of its impact on society and the environment. This requires considering environmental, social, and governance (ESG) criteria in financial decision-making and taking a long-term view.

The ESG issues can be considered in various ways: integration of risks and opportunities, engagement with investee companies, exclusions based on moral values, selection based on best-in-class, following a theme, or aiming for positive social and environmental impact.

Financial services that systematically take account of ESG issues in decision making are variously labelled as ethical, responsible, green, or sustainable. In this guide, we have used sustainable financial services as an umbrella term to represent these categories as a whole.

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